TerraCotta Warriors And Horses Xian
Warriors And Horses Xian is located in Lintong District,
35 kilometers away from Xian City, 1.5 km east of Emperor Qinshi Huang’s
Mausoleum, which covers a total area of 20 hectares . TerraCotta
Warriors And Horses Xian is the museum of first Qin emperor,
one of the top ten places of historical interest in China, and was
listed as the world heritage by the UNESCO about a decade ago.
TerraCotta Warriors And Horses Xian were accidentally discovered by Chinese peasants while digging a well. This discovery prompted archaeologists to proceed to Shaanxi, China to investigate. No one knows why this site became buried and lost among memories in the clay and in the minds of China. What they found was the ancient burial-site of the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. These warriors were placed all around the burial tomb of Emperor Qin. Before Qin, masters were buried with women, slaves, and soldiers. This tradition during China's feudal period vanished during the life of Qin. To substitute for the actual humans, Qin ordered a massive clay army to be produced for his protection. Qin wanted the afterlife to be the same as his life on earth. Qin produced a warlike culture in China, which brought him many enemies. During his lifetime there were three attempts to assassinate him, so he had to be protected in the afterlife.
There are three pits at the museum, they were Pit1, 2 and 3 respectively in order of discovery, with a total area of 22,780 square metres and 1,000 life-size terra-cotta warriors, horses and chariots.
The first site was excavated in 1974. Although much of the site had been looted soon after it was built, archaeologists discovered 6,000 pottery figures. This oblong shaped site is 689 feet long, 197 feet wide. The trenches that contain the soldiers are 14.8 to 21.3 feet deep. The actual bodies of the soldiers were formed out of terra cotta clay. Each soldier was baked in a kiln. The positioning of the soldiers in the oblong shape shows an actual battle formation of the troops.
These warriors were dressed and ready for battle. They carried
spears and various other combat weapons. Each warrior is wearing
an army uniform which distinguishes the soldier's rank. The soldier's
uniforms were painted either red or green. They also wore either
brown or black armor. Different types of warriors include bowman,
infantrymen, and among these soldiers are six chariots. Each soldier
has a distinct facial expression. Even the horses found at this
site have different poses. Both the hands and the heads of the soldiers
are detachable. These pieces of the body were carefully crafted
and painted separately. The purpose of this was to provide the soldier
with individuality and uniqueness. This also shows the quality of
Chinese art during this time. These soldiers were made to be naturalistic.
The height of the normal soldiers ranges from 5 ft. 8 in. to 6 ft.
2.5 in. Those that rode the chariots were 6 ft. 2.5 in. The commanders
were the tallest out of all the soldiers. They stood 6 ft. 5 in.
Clearly height represented the importance of the officer.
The second excavation occurred in May of 1976. This pit contains 1,400 warriors with horses. It is 64,000 square feet in area. Pit number two differs greatly from the first pit. The battle formation was square. This pit contains sixty-four chariots. It has divided groups which include infantrymen, cavalrymen and even commanders to guide the troops. This display of soldiers gives insight into the work that went into the Chinese army. Long distance battles had to be fought by using many chariots. The facial expressions of the men in this pit are also very different from those men in the first pit.
The third pit was discovered in 1980. This pit is the smallest out of the three discovered. It contains only one chariot, six warriors, and a small amount of weapons. This room is thought to be a group of special commanders. A fourth pit was also discovered. This room is bare. This room is probably empty because the workers did not complete the warriors in time for Qin's death.
continue to excavate the burial site if Emperor Qin. His actual
tomb has not been excavated. These warriors will continue to give
insight into the history of both Chinese art and war tactics. They
represent a microcosm of life during the Qin Dynasty. The dynasties
following Qin would pattern their lives after this great dynasty
of the Fist Emperor of China.
Among the three pits, No.1 pit is the largest one. More than 6,000 clay warriors and horses could be unearthed from No.1 pit. All of them are life-like. The terra-cotta warriors and horses are arrayed in an oblong battle formation of the Qin Dynasty, facing east, they look healthy and strong and have different facial expressions, showing Emperor Qingshihuang's Strong determination of wiping out the other six states and unifying the whole country. It is the most magnificent archaeological discovery in this century. It is also a reflection of Chinese people's wisdom and artful skill two thousand years ago. Thousands of real weapons were unearthed from these terra-cotta army pits. These weapons were exquisitely made. Some of them are still very sharp since their surface were treated with chromium. They are as bright as new, though buried underground for more than 2,000 years. This indicates that Qin Dynasty's metallurgical technology and weapon-manufacturing technique already had reached quite a high level. In 1980, two teams of large painted bronze chariots and horses were unearthed 20 metres west of the mausoleum. Together with TerraCotta Warriors, they are called the eighth wonder of the world.
Admission Fee: RMB 90 (Mar.1 to Nov. 30), RMB 65 (Dec. 1 to Feb. 28/29)
Opening Hours: 08:00 to 18:00
Recommended Time for a Visit: 3 hours
Bus Route: 914 and Tourist Bus 5 (306) at the East Square of Xian Railway Station
4 Days Xian Historic Tour with the Big Wild Goose Pagoda USD350 up
2 Days Xian Highlights Tour with the Big Wild Goose Pagoda USD250 up
Full Day Terracotta Warriors Tour with Huaqing Hot Spring USD 120 up
Full Day Xian City and Terracotta Warriors Tour USD 140 up